We have 11 protons, 10 neutrons. So there is 1 more proton present in the atom, than there are electrons. So sodium becomes a positively charged. We can show this by writing Na+.
Okay just one more type of bonding to discuss here. I know I kind of covered a lot of material here, but I promise you we are getting to the whole pH issue right after this explanation so hang in there.
The last and final way that an atom can bond to another atom is called the Hydrogen Bond. This is a very week bond, and can be broken easily. Well perhaps we should say that it would require less energy to break the bond.
Now lets go back to our water molecule, that simple combination of Hydrogen and Oxygen. Now remember that in water there are two hydrogens and one oxygen.
Now oxygen is the 8th element on the periodic chart. Its first orbital shell we already know can hold 2 electrons, and the second orbital shell can contain up to eight electrons, but oxygen only has 6 electrons. Hmmm Hydrogen has one electron, and oxygen has two empty slots that can be used by hydrogen. Okay, I hope you can visualize this now.
Because atoms have their own geometric rules, which can become extremely complicated to understand and visualize, I just want you for now to think of a Mickey Mouse hat. Why? Well thats is exactly what a single molecule of water looks like.
Now the part that goes on your head, thats the oxygen, the two ears represent the hydrogen molecules. Now because hydrogen was trying to get another electron to orbit so it would have two electrons in its first shell, and the oxygen is always trying to fill its 2nd shell with two more electrons, it accepts the hydrogen molecules in those empty slots. So now both oxygen and hydrogen are happy, and their orbital shells are complete.
So now what is the hydrogen bond? Well because the oxygen molecule is bigger it attracts the electrons of its counterparts, in this case hydrogen. This gives the hydrogen a slightly more positive charge, and the oxygen a slightly more negative charge. This is why DNA can form into those double helix forms. It has all to do with the hydrogen bonding between its molecules.
So far we have covered some basic atomic structure, electrical charges, and the different ways that atoms can bond to each other. All of this ties in with pH. I know its rarely be mentioned, but I explained that I was going to.
But before I do, go back and just review what it is that was said here in this second chapter. Because in chapter III we are going to look at what pH is. See I just saved the best for last!
It is also important to have an understanding of all the concepts and ideas discussed here already. All of these ideas will play a big in the pH of your water. And pH is not the end of the story, because then we will continue on to the story of Alkalinity!
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